The Farm

Kona coffee, a highly regarded coffee type, is cultivated solely in the Kona region of Hawaii’s Big Island. Its distinct taste and scent make it a favorite among coffee enthusiasts. Nonetheless, the production of this exceptional coffee is intricate and necessitates farmers’ expertise and care. This article will guide you through the process of Kona coffee production, from the farm to the cup.

History of Kona Coffee

Since the early 1800s, Kona coffee has been cultivated in Hawaii after Samuel Reverend Ruggles brought coffee plants from Guatemala. The Kona district’s climate and geography have proven to be ideal for coffee growth, resulting in exceptional quality coffee that is highly valued by coffee enthusiasts worldwide.

Step 1: Harvesting

To begin the production of Kona coffee, the first step is to harvest the coffee cherries. This process takes place from August to January. The farmers carefully examine the trees every day to select only the cherries that are fully ripe. Any cherries that are not yet ripe are left on the tree to mature further. During the picking process, the farmers must be cautious not to harm the tree or any unripe cherries that will be collected later.

Step 2: Processing the Cherries

After the cherries are picked, they are transported to a facility for processing, either wet or dry. The wet method involves using a depulper machine to extract the pulp from the cherries. The beans are then soaked in water and left to ferment for a few hours to eliminate any remaining pulp. Following fermentation, the beans are washed and dried either by sunlight or a mechanical dryer. The dry method involves spreading the cherries out in the sun for a few weeks, with regular raking to ensure uniform drying.

Step 3: Milling and Roasting

Once the beans have undergone the drying process, they are prepared for milling. This entails eliminating the outer layer of the beans to expose the green coffee bean within. The green beans are then categorized based on their size, shape, and color. Following the sorting process, the beans are roasted to highlight their unique scent and taste. Roasting Kona coffee necessitates expertise to prevent over or under-roasting, which can lead to a substandard cup of coffee.

Step 4: Tasting and Grading

After roasting, the beans are assessed for taste and quality by a skilled taster who evaluates the scent, taste, texture, and acidity of the coffee. The taster uses the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) grading system to evaluate the coffee. Kona coffee that scores 80 points or higher is classified as specialty grade.

Step 5: Packaging and Distribution

After being graded and assessed, the coffee is prepared for distribution. Kona coffee is usually sold as whole beans to preserve its freshness. The beans are packed in sealed bags with a valve that permits the release of gas while blocking oxygen from entering. The coffee is then distributed to local cafes, stores, and global consumers who desire this distinct coffee.


Creating Kona coffee is a process that demands a lot of effort and expertise from the farmers. Every stage, from picking to roasting, necessitates careful handling and accuracy to guarantee a top-quality coffee experience. Kona coffee is genuinely a gem of Hawaii, with its outstanding taste and fragrance. Therefore, when you enjoy a cup of Kona coffee, take pleasure in it and acknowledge the diligence and commitment that went into its production.

Kona Coffee Production: From Farm to Cup

Frequently Asked Questions

Can you explain how the Kona district’s climate affects the taste of Kona coffee?

The Kona region in Hawaii has a special microclimate that features bright mornings, gusty or rainy afternoons, and gentle nights. This, along with the fertile volcanic soil, results in a gradual maturation process for the coffee cherries, which enhances their unique taste and scent.

Can you explain the contrast between wet and dry methods of processing coffee cherries?

Wet processing involves removing the pulp from the cherries and fermenting the beans in water to remove any remaining pulp. The beans are then washed and dried. Dry processing, on the other hand, involves drying the whole cherries in the sun, then removing the dried pulp and skin. Each method imparts different characteristics to the final coffee product.

Can you explain how the flavor of Kona coffee is impacted by the roasting procedure?

The roasting process is crucial in bringing out the desired flavors of Kona coffee. It involves heating the green coffee beans at high temperatures, causing chemical changes that develop the beans’ complex flavor profile. The degree of roast – light, medium, or dark – can significantly affect the coffee’s taste, aroma, and acidity.

What does it mean when Kona coffee is graded as “specialty grade”?

When Kona coffee is graded as “specialty grade” according to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) scale, it means that the coffee has met high standards of quality. This includes factors like the coffee’s aroma, flavor, body, and acidity. A score of 80 points or above on the SCAA scale is considered specialty grade.

Why is Kona coffee often sold in whole bean form?

Kona coffee is often sold in whole bean form to preserve its freshness and flavor. Once coffee beans are ground, they start to lose flavor due to exposure to air and moisture. By selling whole beans, producers ensure that the coffee retains its quality until the consumer is ready to grind and brew it.

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